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Captain Cooks Video

James Cook (Documentary)

At the age of 18, in , he was apprenticed to a well-known Quaker shipowner, John Walker of Whitby, and at 21 was rated able seaman in the Walker collier-barks—stout, seaworthy, slow and tonners mainly in the North Sea trade.

When the ships were laid up for refitting done by the apprentices and crews at Whitby during the worst months of winter, Cook lived ashore and studied mathematics by night.

The Whitby barks, constantly working North Sea waters off a dangerous and ill-marked lee shore, offered Cook splendid practical training: the young man who learned his seamanship there had little to fear from any other sea.

Promoted to mate in , Cook was offered command of a bark three years later, after eight years at sea. Advancement of this nature opened up a career that would have satisfied most working seamen, but instead Cook volunteered as able seaman in the Royal Navy.

The navy, he was sure, offered a more interesting career for the competent professional seaman, and greater opportunity than in the North Sea barks.

Tall, of striking appearance, Cook almost immediately caught the attention of his superiors, and with excellent power of command, he was marked for rapid advancement.

His charting and marking of the more difficult reaches of the St. Lawrence River contributed to the success of Maj.

Based at Halifax during the winters, he mastered surveying with the plane table. Between and , after the war had ended, he commanded the schooner Grenville while surveying the coasts of Newfoundland , sailing most of the year and working on his charts at his base in England during the winters.

In he observed an eclipse of the Sun and sent the details to the Royal Society in London—an unusual activity for a noncommissioned officer , for Cook still rated only as master.

In the Royal Society , in conjunction with the Admiralty , was organizing the first scientific expedition to the Pacific, and the rather obscure year-old James Cook was appointed commander of the expedition.

Hurriedly commissioned as lieutenant, he was given a homely looking but extremely sturdy Whitby coal-hauling bark renamed HMS Endeavour , then four years old, of just tons and less than 98 feet 30 metres long.

That done, on June 3, , he was to find the southern continent , the so-called Terra Australis, which philosophers argued must exist to balance the landmasses of the Northern Hemisphere.

The leader of the scientists was the rich and able Joseph Banks , aged 26, who was assisted by Daniel Solander, a Swedish botanist, as well as astronomers Cook rating as one and artists.

Cook carried an early nautical almanac and brass sextants but no chronometer on the first voyage. Striking south and southwest from Tahiti, where his predecessors had sailed west and west-northwest with the favouring trade winds, Cook found and charted all of New Zealand , a difficult job that took six months.

After that, instead of turning before the west winds for the homeward run around Cape Horn , he crossed the Tasman Sea westward and, on April 19, , came upon the southeast coast of Australia.

Once the bark touched on a coral spur by night, but it withstood the impact and was refloated. After the Endeavour was grounded on the nearby Queensland coast and repaired, Cook sailed it back to England.

He stopped briefly at Batavia modern Jakarta for supplies, and, although the crew had been remarkably healthy until then, 30 died of fever and dysentery contracted while on land.

None of the crew, however, died of scurvy a dietary disease, caused by a lack of ascorbic acid , that notoriously decimated the crews of ships on lengthy voyages in the 18th century.

The health in which he maintained his sailors in consequence made his name a naval byword. Back in England, he was promoted to commander and presented to King George III , and soon he began to organize another and even more ambitious voyage.

The success of the expedition of Joseph Banks and his scientists which established the useful principle of sending scientists on naval voyages—e.

Huxley in the Rattlesnake , and J. Hooker with Sir James Ross to the Ross Sea in the Antarctic stimulated interest not only in the discovery of new lands but in the new knowledge in many other scientific subjects.

The wealth of scientifically collected material from the Endeavour voyage was unique. Cook was now sent out with two ships to make the first circumnavigation of and penetration into the Antarctic.

Between July and July Cook made what ranks as one of the greatest sailing ship voyages, again with a small former Whitby ship, the Resolution , and a consort ship, the Adventure.

He showed that a real Terra Australis existed only in the landmasses of Australia, New Zealand, and whatever land might remain frozen beyond the ice rim of Antarctica.

And, once again, not one of his crew died of scurvy. Back in England, he was promoted to captain at last, elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and awarded one of its highest honours, the gold Copley Medal , for a paper that he prepared on his work against scurvy.

There was yet one secret of the Pacific to be discovered: whether there existed a northwest passage around Canada and Alaska or a northeast one around Siberia , between the Atlantic and Pacific.

He reluctantly accepted, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if an opportunity for active duty should arise. A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage.

He travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite route.

The voyage was ostensibly planned to return the Pacific Islander Omai to Tahiti, or so the public was led to believe.

The trip's principal goal was to locate a Northwest Passage around the American continent. From the Sandwich Islands, Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. Relations between Cook's crew and the people of Yuquot were cordial but sometimes strained. In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had been acceptable in Hawaii.

Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items which the British received in trade were sea otter pelts.

During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels; the natives usually visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.

After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait , on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska.

In a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska, and closed the gaps in Russian from the west and Spanish from the south exploratory probes of the northern limits of the Pacific.

Cook then sailed west to the Siberian coast, and then southeast down the Siberian coast back to the Bering Strait.

Cook returned to Hawaii in After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i Island , largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki , a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution , or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship.

It has been argued most extensively by Marshall Sahlins that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's and to a limited extent, his crew's initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.

After a month's stay, Cook attempted to resume his exploration of the northern Pacific. Shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, however, Resolution ' s foremast broke, so the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs.

Tensions rose, and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians at Kealakekua Bay.

An unknown group of Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats. The evening when the cutter was taken, the people had become "insolent" even with threats to fire upon them.

The following day, 14 February , Cook marched through the village to retrieve the king. They pleaded with the king not to go. An old kahuna priest , chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore.

The king began to understand that Cook was his enemy. The esteem which the islanders nevertheless held for Cook caused them to retain his body.

Following their practice of the time, they prepared his body with funerary rituals usually reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society.

The body was disembowelled , baked to facilitate removal of the flesh , and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages.

Some of Cook's remains, thus preserved, were eventually returned to his crew for a formal burial at sea. Clerke assumed leadership of the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.

James King replaced Gore in command of Discovery. After their arrival in England, King completed Cook's account of the voyage.

He was a modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation, sensible and intelligent. In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition the most friendly, benevolent and humane.

His person was above six feet high: and, though a good looking man, he was plain both in dress and appearance. His face was full of expression: his nose extremely well shaped: his eyes which were small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows prominent, which gave his countenance altogether an air of austerity.

At that time the collection consisted of artefacts collected on Cook's three voyages throughout the Pacific Ocean, during the period —80, along with documents and memorabilia related to these voyages.

Many of the ethnographic artefacts were collected at a time of first contact between Pacific Peoples and Europeans. The provenance of the collection shows that the objects remained in the hands of Cook's widow Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until Alexander, and William Adams.

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to Europeans' knowledge of the area. Several islands, such as the Hawaiian group, were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.

Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant.

Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth.

The Earth turns a full degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.

It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison , which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford ' s journey to Jamaica in — He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food.

He correctly postulated a link among all the Pacific peoples, despite their being separated by great ocean stretches see Malayo-Polynesian languages.

Cook theorised that Polynesians originated from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes later verified. Cook carried several scientists on his voyages; they made significant observations and discoveries.

The two collected over 3, plant species. Artists also sailed on Cook's first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was heavily involved in documenting the botanists' findings, completing drawings before his death near the end of the voyage.

They were of immense scientific value to British botanists. Several officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments.

Bligh became known for the mutiny of his crew , which resulted in his being set adrift in George Dixon , who sailed under Cook on his third expedition, later commanded his own.

Cook's contributions to knowledge gained international recognition during his lifetime. In , while the American colonies were fighting Britain for their independence , Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of colonial warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, they were to "not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness The first recorded circumnavigation of the world by an animal was by Cook's goat, [ citation needed ] who made that memorable journey twice [ citation needed ] : the first time on HMS Dolphin , under Samuel Wallis , and then aboard Endeavour.

When they returned to England, Cook had the goat presented with a silver collar engraved with lines from Samuel Johnson : Perpetui, ambita bis terra, praemia lactis Haec habet altrici Capra secunda Jovis.

She was put to pasture on Cook's farm outside London and was reportedly admitted to the privileges of the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich.

Minted for the th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage 10, has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.

The first institution of higher education in North Queensland, Australia, was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in A large aquatic monument is planned for Cook's landing place at Botany Bay , Sydney.

One of the earliest monuments to Cook in the United Kingdom is located at The Vache , erected in by Admiral Hugh Palliser , a contemporary of Cook and one-time owner of the estate.

Cook's widow Elizabeth was also buried in the church and in her will left money for the memorial's upkeep. The th anniversary of Cook's birth was marked at the site of his birthplace in Marton by the opening of the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum , located within Stewart Park A granite vase just to the south of the museum marks the approximate spot where he was born.

Also named after Cook is James Cook University Hospital , a major teaching hospital which opened in with a railway station serving it called James Cook opening in A statue erected in his honour can be viewed near Admiralty Arch on the south side of The Mall in London.

In , the Cooktown Re-enactment Association first performed a re-enactment of Cook's landing at the site of modern Cooktown, Australia, and have continued the tradition each year, with the support and participation of many of the local Guugu Yimithirr people.

In , Kenneth Slessor 's poem " Five Visions of Captain Cook " was the "most dramatic break-through" in Australian poetry of the 20th century according to poet Douglas Stewart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Captain Cook disambiguation and James Cook disambiguation. Marton , Yorkshire, England.

Kealakekua Bay , Hawaii. Elizabeth Batts. Main article: First voyage of James Cook. Main article: Second voyage of James Cook.

Main article: Third voyage of James Cook. Sydney University Press. London Borough of Barking and Dagenham. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Retrieved 5 March University of New South Wales Press.

Retrieved 5 September Life in the Royal Navy — Retrieved 22 September Newfoundland Historical Society Pamphlet Number 3.

Retrieved 27 August Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Retrieved 2 November Narrative of the voyages round the world, performed by Captain James Cook; with an account of his life during the previous and intervening periods.

Chapter 2. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. Retrieved 4 September Retrieved 31 July National Archives of Australia.

Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 21 September The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. Retrieved 24 July Part 2 of 4 — Britain on DocuWatch — free streaming British history documentaries".

Archived from the original on 7 April National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 10 October BC Geographical Names.

Retrieved 6 March The Life of Captain James Cook. Princeton University Press. Paradise of the Pacific Press. History of the Sandwich Islands.

Lahainaluna: Press of the Mission Seminary. Captain Cook Society. Retrieved 27 October Steve Ragnall. Hawaiian Historical Society.

Retrieved 14 August Electronic Museum Narrative. Australian Museum. A voyage to the Pacific Ocean London: W. Retrieved 8 July

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On this leg of the voyage, he brought a young Tahitian named Omai , who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage.

He then turned north to South Africa and from there continued back to England. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.

Cook's second voyage marked a successful employment of Larcum Kendall's K1 copy of John Harrison 's H4 marine chronometer , which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy.

Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of post-captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, with a posting as an officer of the Greenwich Hospital.

He reluctantly accepted, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if an opportunity for active duty should arise. A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage.

He travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite route.

The voyage was ostensibly planned to return the Pacific Islander Omai to Tahiti, or so the public was led to believe. The trip's principal goal was to locate a Northwest Passage around the American continent.

From the Sandwich Islands, Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. Relations between Cook's crew and the people of Yuquot were cordial but sometimes strained.

In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had been acceptable in Hawaii. Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute.

The most valuable items which the British received in trade were sea otter pelts. During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels; the natives usually visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.

After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait , on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska.

In a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska, and closed the gaps in Russian from the west and Spanish from the south exploratory probes of the northern limits of the Pacific.

Cook then sailed west to the Siberian coast, and then southeast down the Siberian coast back to the Bering Strait. Cook returned to Hawaii in After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i Island , largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki , a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution , or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship.

It has been argued most extensively by Marshall Sahlins that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's and to a limited extent, his crew's initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.

After a month's stay, Cook attempted to resume his exploration of the northern Pacific. Shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, however, Resolution ' s foremast broke, so the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs.

Tensions rose, and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians at Kealakekua Bay. An unknown group of Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats.

The evening when the cutter was taken, the people had become "insolent" even with threats to fire upon them.

The following day, 14 February , Cook marched through the village to retrieve the king. They pleaded with the king not to go.

An old kahuna priest , chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore.

The king began to understand that Cook was his enemy. The esteem which the islanders nevertheless held for Cook caused them to retain his body.

Following their practice of the time, they prepared his body with funerary rituals usually reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society.

The body was disembowelled , baked to facilitate removal of the flesh , and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages.

Some of Cook's remains, thus preserved, were eventually returned to his crew for a formal burial at sea. Clerke assumed leadership of the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.

James King replaced Gore in command of Discovery. After their arrival in England, King completed Cook's account of the voyage. He was a modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation, sensible and intelligent.

In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition the most friendly, benevolent and humane. His person was above six feet high: and, though a good looking man, he was plain both in dress and appearance.

His face was full of expression: his nose extremely well shaped: his eyes which were small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows prominent, which gave his countenance altogether an air of austerity.

At that time the collection consisted of artefacts collected on Cook's three voyages throughout the Pacific Ocean, during the period —80, along with documents and memorabilia related to these voyages.

Many of the ethnographic artefacts were collected at a time of first contact between Pacific Peoples and Europeans.

The provenance of the collection shows that the objects remained in the hands of Cook's widow Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until Alexander, and William Adams.

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to Europeans' knowledge of the area. Several islands, such as the Hawaiian group, were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.

Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant.

Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth.

The Earth turns a full degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.

It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison , which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford ' s journey to Jamaica in — He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food.

He correctly postulated a link among all the Pacific peoples, despite their being separated by great ocean stretches see Malayo-Polynesian languages.

Cook theorised that Polynesians originated from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes later verified. Cook carried several scientists on his voyages; they made significant observations and discoveries.

The two collected over 3, plant species. Artists also sailed on Cook's first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was heavily involved in documenting the botanists' findings, completing drawings before his death near the end of the voyage.

They were of immense scientific value to British botanists. Several officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments.

Bligh became known for the mutiny of his crew , which resulted in his being set adrift in George Dixon , who sailed under Cook on his third expedition, later commanded his own.

Cook's contributions to knowledge gained international recognition during his lifetime. In , while the American colonies were fighting Britain for their independence , Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of colonial warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, they were to "not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness The first recorded circumnavigation of the world by an animal was by Cook's goat, [ citation needed ] who made that memorable journey twice [ citation needed ] : the first time on HMS Dolphin , under Samuel Wallis , and then aboard Endeavour.

When they returned to England, Cook had the goat presented with a silver collar engraved with lines from Samuel Johnson : Perpetui, ambita bis terra, praemia lactis Haec habet altrici Capra secunda Jovis.

She was put to pasture on Cook's farm outside London and was reportedly admitted to the privileges of the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich.

Minted for the th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage 10, has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.

The first institution of higher education in North Queensland, Australia, was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in A large aquatic monument is planned for Cook's landing place at Botany Bay , Sydney.

One of the earliest monuments to Cook in the United Kingdom is located at The Vache , erected in by Admiral Hugh Palliser , a contemporary of Cook and one-time owner of the estate.

Cook's widow Elizabeth was also buried in the church and in her will left money for the memorial's upkeep. The th anniversary of Cook's birth was marked at the site of his birthplace in Marton by the opening of the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum , located within Stewart Park A granite vase just to the south of the museum marks the approximate spot where he was born.

Also named after Cook is James Cook University Hospital , a major teaching hospital which opened in with a railway station serving it called James Cook opening in A statue erected in his honour can be viewed near Admiralty Arch on the south side of The Mall in London.

In , the Cooktown Re-enactment Association first performed a re-enactment of Cook's landing at the site of modern Cooktown, Australia, and have continued the tradition each year, with the support and participation of many of the local Guugu Yimithirr people.

In , Kenneth Slessor 's poem " Five Visions of Captain Cook " was the "most dramatic break-through" in Australian poetry of the 20th century according to poet Douglas Stewart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Captain Cook disambiguation and James Cook disambiguation.

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